Exhibit IV. Implementing Diversity Management Strategies A. Introduction 1. Having discussed a variety of ways in which people differ, we now look at how a manager can and should manage these differences.
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Diversity management makes everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others. One method of enhancing workforce diversity is to target recruiting messages to specific demographic groups underrepresented in the workforce.
The selection process is one of the most important places to apply diversity efforts. Managers who hire need to value fairness and objectivity in selecting employees and focus on the productive potential of new recruits. Individuals who are demographically different from their coworkers may be more likely to feel low commitment and leave, but a positive diversity climate can help.
All workers appear to prefer an organization that values diversity. Diversity in Groups 1. Groups are an essential part of organizational settings. If employees feel no cohesion or sense of membership, group attributes are likely to be less. Does diversity help or hurt group performance? Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations Page 8 2 On the other hand, teams of individuals who are highly intelligent, conscientious, and interested in working in team settings are more effective.
In other cases, differences can be a strength. Effective Diversity Programs 1. Effective diversity programs have three components: a. They teach managers about the legal framework for equal employment opportunity and encourage fair treatment of all people regardless of their demographic characteristics. They teach managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse market of customers and clients. They foster personal development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers, acknowledging how differences in perspective can be a valuable way to improve performance for everyone.
Much concern about diversity has to do with fair treatment. Organizational leaders should examine their workforce to determine whether target groups have been underutilized. If groups of employees are not proportionally represented in top management, managers should look for any hidden barriers to advancement. Communications should focus as much as possible on qualifications and job performance; emphasizing certain groups as needing more assistance could well backfire.
Summary and Implications for Managers A. This chapter looked at diversity from many perspectives, paying particular attention to three variables—biographical characteristics, ability, and diversity programs. In this chapter, we look at how organizations work to maximize the potential contributions of a diverse workforce. Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations Page 9 C.
Demographic Characteristics 1. Earnings gaps between groups have narrowed. Aging workforce is an important concern both in the U. Discrimination A. The following organizational changes can be successful at reducing stereotype threat: increasing awareness of how stereotypes may be perpetuated, reducing differential and preferential treatment through objective assessments, banning stereotyped practices and messages, confronting micro-aggressions against minority groups, and adopting transparent practices that signal the value of all employees.
Under increasing legal scrutiny and social disapproval, most overt forms have faded, but this may have resulted in an increase in covert forms such as incivility or exclusion. Some forms are difficult to root out because they are unobservable. Whether intentional or not, serious negative consequences may arise for employers. Diversity is a broad term, and workplace diversity can describe any characteristic that makes one person different from another.
Biographical Characteristics A. Biographical characteristics such as age, race, gender, disability, and length of service are some of the most obvious ways employees differ. The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade for many reasons. First, the workforce is aging. Another reason is U. And when organizations are actively seeking individuals who are adaptable and open to change, the negatives associated with age clearly hinder the initial hiring of older workers and increase the likelihood they will be let go during cutbacks.
As workers get older, they have fewer alternative job opportunities as their skills have become more specialized to certain types of work. Their long tenure also tends to provide them with higher wage rates, longer paid vacations, and more attractive pension benefits.
In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees.
However, they have equal rates of unavoidable absence, such as sickness absences. Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations Page 51 C. Sex 1 Several explanations could clear up these results, the most plausible being that these studies are intermixing professional and nonprofessional employees. Research has shown that workers who experience the worst form of overt sexual discrimination or sexual harassment have higher levels of psychological stress, and these feelings in turn are related to lower levels of organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and higher intentions to leave.
Research continues to underline that although the reasons for employee turnover are complex, it is detrimental to organizational performance, particularly for intellectual positions, for managerial employees, in the United States, and in medium-sized firms. Race is a controversial issue. We define race as the heritage people use to identify themselves; ethnicity is the additional set of cultural characteristics that often develops with race.
Typically, we associate race with biology and ethnicity with culture, but there is a history of self-identifying for both classifications. Laws against race and ethnic discrimination are in effect in many countries, including Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. While better representation of all racial groups in organizations remains a goal, an individual of minority status is much less likely to leave the organization if there is a feeling of inclusiveness, known as positive diversity climate.
African-Americans generally do worse than whites in employment decisions. Most research shows that members of racial and ethnic minorities report higher levels of discrimination in the workplace. Discrimination leads to increased turnover, which is detrimental to organizational performance.
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Some research suggests that having a positive climate for diversity overall can lead to increased sales. Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations Page 52 E. Disability 1. It requires reasonable accommodation for disabilities. A person is disabled who has any physical or mental impairment that substantial limits one or more major life activities.
Hidden, or invisible, disabilities generally fall under the categories of sensory disabilities, autoimmune disorders, chronic illness or pain, cognitive or learning impairments, sleep disorders, and psychological challenges. Research suggests that disclosure helps all — the individual, others, and organizations. Disclosure may increase the job satisfaction and well-being of the individual, help others understand and assist the individual to succeed in the workplace, and allow the organization to accommodate the situation to achieve top performance. Sexual orientation 1 While much has changed, the full acceptance and accommodation of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender employees remains a work in progress.
Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations Page 53 b. Gender identity 1 Companies are increasingly putting in place policies to govern how their organizations treat transgender employees. Thanks to global integration and changing labor markets, global companies do well to understand and respect the cultural identities of their employees, both as groups and as individuals.
A company seeking to be sensitive to the cultural identities of its employees should look beyond accommodating its majority group and instead create as much of an individualized approach to practices and norms as possible. Intellectual Abilities 1. Intellectual abilities are abilities needed to perform mental activities — thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. Smart people generally earn more money and attain higher levels of education.
They are also more likely to emerge as leaders of groups. Exhibit describes these dimensions. However, they are high enough that researchers also recognize a general factor of intelligence, general mental ability GMA. The more complex a job is in terms of information-processing demands, the more general intelligence and verbal abilities will be necessary to perform successfully.
Where employee behavior is highly routine and there are few or no opportunities to exercise discretion, a high IQ is not as important as performing well. However, that does not mean people with high IQs cannot have an impact on traditionally less complex jobs.
Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations Page 54 7. The correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction is about zero. Research suggests that although intelligent people perform better and tend to have more interesting jobs, they are also more critical when evaluating their job conditions.
Thus, smart people have it better, but they also expect more. Exhibit VI.
This definition highlights the fact that diversity programs include and are meant for everyone. This means placing advertisements in publications geared toward specific demographic groups. Diversity advertisements that fail to show women and minorities in positions of organizational leadership send a negative message about the diversity climate at an organization. Managers who hire need to value fairness and objectivity in selecting employees, and focus on the productive potential of new recruits.
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Where managers use a well-defined protocol for assessing applicant talent and the organization clearly prioritizes nondiscrimination policies, qualifications become far more important in determining who gets hired than demographic characteristics. Similarity in personality appears to affect career advancement. Those whose personality traits are similar to those of their coworkers are more likely to be promoted than those whose personalities are different.
Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations Page 55 1 Whether diverse or homogeneous teams are more effective depends on the characteristic of interest. Evidence also shows transformational leaders who emphasize higher-order goals and values in their leadership style are more effective in managing diverse teams. Most negative reactions to employment discrimination are based on the idea that discriminatory treatment is unfair. Regardless of race or gender, people are generally in favor of diversity-oriented programs, including affirmative action, if they believe the policies ensure everyone a fair opportunity to show their skills and abilities.
Finally, research indicates a tailored approach will be needed for international organizations. This chapter looks at diversity from many perspectives paying particular attention to three variables — biographical characteristics, ability, and diversity programs.