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Through this strategic industry-academy alliance with close involvement from the government, POSCO was then able to provide POSTECH with endowments that enabled the university to evolve into an autonomous yet independent entity while being recognized as a partner of industry. The role of the government also proved crucial to the transformation of SKKU into an entrepreneurial university. The government supported the acquisition of SKKU by Samsung amidst growing controversies owing to the conservative views of the larger Korean community.

The government provided full administrative support, while the ministry of education facilitated the interaction between Samsung and SKKU through removal and shrinking the legal barriers related to the acquisition of a university by a corporation Cho Even though the government is not directly engaged during the double helix formation, its role is crucial to offer the necessary support to assist the transformation of the ivory tower into an entrepreneurial university.

The Corporate Helix relationship thus demonstrates the necessity of the country, state, or local governments to support key areas of the university-industry alliance process. This will in turn allow for the strategic transformation into corporate departments, college, or university that enables technological-catch up of the nation to innovation-based growth. POSTECH eventually became recognized as a top national academic institution offering one of the best Science and Technology programs within the Asian region in a short time. This served as a key to attract the brightest students and scholars to the Pohang area Innace and Dress ; Cho Additionally, through competitive standards for promotion of its faculty and the development of its technical know-how and expertise, POSTECH was able to assist Korea in reversing its brain-drain Innace and Dress ; Cho POSTECH was able to develop a wide range of innovative technologies and applications through seeking synergies that were available between industry and academia.

POSTECH has grown to lead Korean biotech research, bringing forth its discoveries to the market as it establishes itself in the hi-tech sector.

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The Pohang Techno Park was also completed in to facilitate technology transfer and to enhance the reputation of Korea and Pohang as a technological center. The successful acquisition of SKKU by Samsung, through a hands-off approach and voluntary mobilization of the faculty at the initial stages of the double helix formation, enabled SKKU to strategize in confronting and dealing with its challenging realities.

SKKU standards thus improved while university progress was generated. Through innovation management techniques, such as the seven Sigma quality improvement and an active internationalization program, the academic standing of SKKU grew domestically and internationally ever since its joint-venture with Samsung in SKKU was also able to develop its core research areas, one of them focused on graphene technology where SKKU along with Samsung was filing the highest number of graphene-related patents in the world.

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This allowed SKKU to also grow and progress to become a world-leading research institute in basic sciences. Also, through the support and collaboration of Samsung, SKKU was able to enter the nano-structural physics field while also developing a world-class center of research and teaching at the SKKU School of Pharmacy Cho Therefore, as a result of intensive investment from Samsung for almost over two decades, SKKU has become one of the top schools in Korea, achieving excellence through its school of medicine, engineering, pharmacy and business.

Proposition 4: Universities can adopt an entrepreneurial role for technological catch-up after being transformed by the Industry to perform knowledge generating functions within knowledge-based economies. Proposition 5: Successful emergence of the university as an entrepreneurial university takes place in a three-stage hierarchical model incorporating the concession stage, inauguration stage, and assimilation stage. The evolutionary cycle of the university from an ivory tower to an entrepreneurial university within the Korean NIS was illustrated through the Corporate Helix model.

In order to permit the participation of the university in technological catch-up, it should be equipped with competitive factors of production like facilities, professors, and students that can enable maximization of production efficiency. However, in some developing countries, such resources are not available; therefore, universities are unable to create knowledge that can eventually be commercialized by the industry. The Corporate Helix model takes into account the university which lacks the capability to become entrepreneurial.


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Such a university is established or acquired by industry and through this partnership it undergoes transformation to become an entrepreneurial university. Therefore, the Corporate Helix model of university-industry-government relations is likely to become a key component for national or multi-national innovation strategies in economies where private or public corporations play an initial key role for the emergence of entrepreneurial universities. It is evident, from the cases of POSTECH and SKKU, that in order to transform universities to perform knowledge-generating functions within knowledge-based economies, replacement of physical capital, modification of curricular and pedagogy, and creation of wider institutional ecology, including better funding, become indispensable.

Governments therefore also need to adopt a catalytic and pro-active role for promoting the formation of the new innovative flow that the Corporate Helix model enables. Unnecessary regulatory barriers need to be lifted. Also, administrative support and incentives through mechanisms like tax benefits should also be considered as a way to encourage a firm's establishing or acquisition of a university.

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This will enable governments to form closer relationships with both the university and industry to achieve technological catch-up for the nation while enhancing the likelihood of collaborative innovation through a strengthened NIS. In order to yield valid theoretical and policy implications, much is left to be explored concerning the technological catch-up of the university, industry, and government within the Corporate Helix model for innovation-based growth.

Future studies should consider an in-depth exploration of the emerging technological innovation capabilities as a result of the double helix formation stage. A new era of intense global competition can be observed among industries worldwide as a result of developments of the World Trade Organization and other international trade agreements Dierickx and Cool ; Guan ; Yam et al. This has led to an ongoing need to adapt, develop, and innovate to augment organization excellence.

Therefore, in order to facilitate and support technological innovation strategies, there is a growing reliance on an all-inclusive set of organizational characteristics or technological innovation capabilities TICs Burgelman et al. The building of technological capability in Korea demonstrated phenomenal growth Kim There was a need for public technology policies and private technology strategies to evolve over time to adjust to shifts in the market and technology environment.

Also, export promotion proved to be an effective public policy instrument for generating competitive stimulus among firms to accelerate technological learning, while rapid increase in education at the mature technology stage allowed firms to obtain adequate existing knowledge bases for technological learning.

Moreover, there appeared to be a liberal policy on brain-drain that in the long run enabled scientists to eventually return to Korea to play a key role in discovering intermediate and emerging technologies Kim Finally, intensity in effort proved to be another prerequisite for building technological capability since one of the most effective ways to intensify effort at the individual and organizational level was to construct crises through setting ambitious goals. Hence, further study should attempt to isolate and describe some of the technological innovation capabilities if any that emerged within the context of the double helix formation where the university evolves from an ivory tower to become entrepreneurial.

In addition, future studies should try and address key challenges and the specific strategies utilized to overcome such challenges of both University and Industry during the double helix formation stage. Furthermore, the current pair-wise comparative case analysis offers a success story of the double helix formation stage within the context of the ivory tower being transformed and transitioned to become entrepreneurial under the initial wing of the Industry.

However, given the possibility of other influencing factors relating to the circumstances and existing environments of the University and Industry during the double helix formation stage, such success stories cannot always be realized. In this context, the public corporation and government are able to establish, acquire, or form joint-ventures with a public university in case the public is averse to joint-ventures between the public school and the private sector. Therefore, future studies should identify and explore such trends in existing economies.

Both cases are currently being investigated by the author. M-HC capitalizes on his contextual familiarity in the national innovation system of South Korea to explain the helix phenomena for corporate-aligned universities within the context of emerging evolutionary markets.

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Asian Development Outlook Bettis R, Hitt M: The new competitive landscape. Strateg Manag J. Camb J Econ. International Journal of Technology and Globalization. Res Policy. Dierickx I, Cool K: Asset stock accumulation and sustainability of competitive advantage. Manag Sci. Eichengreen B: Capitalising on globalization.

Asian Development Review. Eom BY, Lee K: Determinants of industry—academy linkages and, their impact on firm performance: the case of Korea as a latecomer in knowledge industrialization. Universities and the global knowledge economy: a triple helix of university—industry—government relations. Guan J: Comparison study on industrial innovation between China and some European countries. Prod Invent Manag J.

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Hundt D: A legitimate paradox: neo-liberal reform and the return of the state in Korea. The Journal of Development Studies. Policy research report R Kim L: National system of industrial innovation: dynamics of capability building in Korea. National system of innovation: a comparative analysis. Edited by: Nelson RR. Kim EM: The four Asian tigers: economic development and the global political economy. Ind Corp Chang. Edited by: Kim S. High Educ. Kwon K-S: Emergence of research and entrepreneurial activities of Korean universities. Paper presented at the conference on university—industry linkages and economic performance, college of social sciences, Seoul National University, February 27, Lim C: Research issues derived from the study of national systems of innovation NI of small advanced national: analysis of the International Research Project on the NSIs of 10 small advanced nations.

Policy research report Lundvall BA ed National system of innovation: towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. Interim report presented in Seoul.


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    China Research Policy. Download references. Prugsamatz at Mahidol University, College of Management, Thailand, for her technical insight and contribution. What did the government and market do to nurture such rapid learning? What is the appropriate role of the National Research and Development Program within the framework of the National System of Innovation?

    Because they defy quantitative measurement, institutional and organizational skills are often neglected in mainstream economic analyses. Lim shows how institutional and organizational skills help to explain the fast pace of learning and of upgrading technological capability and productivity. After discussing neoclassical views of the South Korean experience as well as the views of economists emphasizing institutional aspects of industrialization, Lim offers his own synthesis and speculates on South Korea's technological future.

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